Saturday, March 14, 2020
Factors Affecting the Success of Mega Introduction In the recent past, the popularity of events management and related projects has increased. According to Bladen (2010), the phenomenon involves the application of project management concepts to the administration of events and occasions. In this paper, the author will analyse a number of contemporary issues affecting the management of these undertakings.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Factors Affecting the Success of Mega-Events specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To this end, the author will review 6 articles reporting on various issues in this field. A key theme affecting the operations of a manager operating in this field in each of the articles will be identified and critically reviewed. Contemporary Issues in Events Management Media Representation of Volunteers at the Beijing Olympic Games (Charles Richard Bladen) Volunteers play a major role in the management of activities related to many events. Bladen (2010) explores how the media represents volunteers in sports. Bladen analyses this issue from the perspective of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The major theme in this article is the portrayal of volunteers in mainstream media. According to Bladen (2010), the Chinese and foreign media houses varied in their coverage of assistants involved in the Olympics. The local media portrayed these individuals as the force behind the success of the mega-event. The foreign media, on the other hand, treated volunteers as a Ã¢â¬ËfrontÃ¢â¬â¢ for the Chinese government. According to Bladen (2010), Chinese media tended to glorify the parties, while foreign media focused on their shortcomings. The media is a very influential force, especially in gauging the success of managing an event like the Olympics. In some cases, media outlets can distort the outcomes of an event. Such distortions can occur in situations where there are conflicting representations, like in the Olympics Games. Bla den (2010) feels that the reporting of volunteering in sporting events lacks sufficient research. The media pays more attention on the individuals engaged in the sports and the actual games, ignoring the parties that provide their services for free. In future, the media can be harnessed to manage mega-events, such as the Olympics. The success can be achieved by acknowledging the individuals behind the preparation and execution of such activities. Beijing Olympics Games would have been depicted as a success if the conflicting representation of the volunteers did not give rise to extraneous issues, such as politics. Bladen (2010) addresses the problem of differing representation of volunteers in the games by analysing the major issues revolving around their roles. The motives behind the activities of these individuals are established by focusing on their duties and how they are treated by the media.Advertising Looking for critical writing on business economics? Let's see if w e can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The misrepresentation of volunteers in the Olympics Games had negative impacts on Chinese legacy. The misinformation raised questions about ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s sincerity and competencies in managing such events. The Chinese were depicted by the media as friendly and accommodating hosts. However, their government was regarded as Ã¢â¬ËBig, Bad ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bladen 2010). The biased reporting in the media cannot be ignored. Such skewed representation extends to the treatment of volunteers by local and international news agencies. As an events manager, the author of this paper feels that the media plays a significant role in the success of events. In addition, the invaluable contribution of volunteers cannot be ignored, irrespective of their skills. However, the coverage of events by the media should be independent from popular themes and attitudes surrounding the culture or politics of the people. The Conceptual isation and Measurement of the Legacy of Mega Sporting Events (Holger Preuss) The legacy of any event significantly influences the management of similar occasions in the future. In their article, Preuss (2007) reviews the nature of the legacies left behind by large scale sporting affairs. The impact of such events is the major theme in this article. Definition of the term legacy, especially in relation to events, is not clear cut. As a result of this, the International Olympic Committee has made efforts to clarify sporting activities and their impacts. The value derived by communities or sports organisations from games, as well as the value of the sporting facilities, constitutes the legacy of sports events. According to Preuss (2007), the effects of any sports undertaking on the community and on other stakeholders can either be positive or negative. They can also be planned or unplanned. The impacts of the event on sporting structures may persist for a long time. As an events manag er, it is important to note that the intended and unintended legacies of a mega sporting undertaking determine the management of the entire undertaking. In addition, the benefits that members of the community derive from the occasion determine its success or failure. Considering the massive investments made in large scale sporting events, the manager should take the lasting legacy very seriously. The impacts are part of the occasionÃ¢â¬â¢s return on investment.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Factors Affecting the Success of Mega-Events specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gauging the lasting impression of sports is very important in the management of these undertakings in the future. For instance, the manager should determine the extent to which the event benefits members of the society. To this end, those undertakings that have positive impacts on the community should be prioritised. There are several met hods used in measuring the legacy of large scale sporting affairs. They include the benchmark, the top-down, and the bottom-up approaches (Preuss 2007). As an event manager, the author of this paper agrees with Preuss that the bottom-up approach is more comprehensive, effective, and adequate compared to the rest. It is important to determine the structural changes brought about by Ã¢â¬Ësuper-eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Preuss 2007). In addition, the manager should gauge the emotional impacts of the occasions, as well as their impacts on the image of the country. For instance, the enhancement of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s image as a result of hosting the Olympics is a major aspect of the eventÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy. In the opinion of this author, the future of such large scale sporting organisations as the FIFA World Cup depends on their legacies in relation to the hosting nation. With regards to the current global economic turmoil, countries are taking the issue of the impacts of events very seriously. A s a manager, this author will strive to enhance the effects of large occasions using the pre-event, event, and post-event legacy framework. Hosting Business Meetings and Special Events in Virtual Worlds: A Fad or the Future? (David M. Pearlman Nicholas A. Gates) The contemporary world is characterised by significant developments in relation to information and technology. Today, technology is emerging as an essential aspect of almost all human undertakings. Events management is one of the areas in the modern world where technology is utilised. The application of technology in managing events is the major theme in this article. Pearlman and Gates (2010) carried out a study to determine virtual reality and its significance to contemporary organisations. The two sought to examine the adoption of this technology in businesses, special parties, and meetings. The viability of virtual reality applications in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world was also analysed. According to Pearlman and Gates ( 2010), the term Ã¢â¬Ëvirtual realityÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in reference to computer-simulated environments. The technology is used to Ã¢â¬ËimaginarilyÃ¢â¬â¢ replicate the real world. A number of computer applications are used to generate 3D visual environments that constitute the virtual world.Advertising Looking for critical writing on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most professionals lack information on virtual reality applications. However, in spite of these inadequacies, the use of this technology in the business world is on the rise. Some of the applications available in the market include WebEx, 3D SL, and ON24 (Pearlman Gates 2010). The most significant contribution of virtual reality to the profession is the development of virtual events. They are gaining popularity because of several factors. Users are becoming used to online platforms. Maturation of virtual technologies and the availability of high bandwidth are some of the other factors enhancing virtual events. Holding virtual conferences and such other undertakings reduces operational costs in the organisation. Such reduced expenditures have increased the popularity of these kinds of meetings and conferences. In spite of the economic benefits associated with this technology, Pearlman and Gates (2010) note that some organisations are reluctant to adopt virtual reality. The study ill ustrates uncertainties about the future of this technology as one of the reasons behind the reluctance. However, considering the advantages associated with virtual events, these doubts are unjustified. Reports of similar undertakings hosted virtually by such organisations as IBM and American Cancer Society highlight the reliability and usefulness of these applications (Pearlman Gates 2010). Global pandemics, such as Influenza, and an increase in travel costs, have led to reduced physical participation in conventions and such other business gatherings. Virtual events have little or no carbon footprint. Such an attribute is important in the contemporary world where people are concerned with global warming. It is important to note that holding large scale events on the virtual platform is a difficult undertaking. In spite of these difficulties, it appears that the growth of these undertakings will increase in the future. Furthermore, simulating mega-events enhances the success of actu al ground occasions. The Effects of Facebook UsersÃ¢â¬â¢ Arousal and Valence on Intention to go to the Festival: Applying an Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (Woojin Lee, Lina Xiong, and Clark Hu) The influence of social media platforms on marketing is a force to reckon with in events management. Large groups of people and corporations come together on social media sites. The link between Facebook as a social medium and management of activities is the main theme in the report cited above. Lee, Xiong, and Hu (2012) acknowledge the influence of social media on events marketing in the contemporary world. The sites make it possible to communicate directly with potential event attendees or the target audience. In addition, the gathering of first hand reactions and suggestions regarding events is made easy. Lee et al. (2012) sought to determine whether Facebook users actually respond to events communicated through the social media site or not. Lee et al. (2012) used the tech nology acceptance model (TAM) to assess how arousal and valence influenced the response of Facebook users in relation to events marketed via the site. The theory of reasoned action (TRA) forms the basis of TAM. It explains the construction of behaviours by individuals (Lee et al. 2012). According to Lee et al. (2012), individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction to technology is informed by its perceived ease of use and applicability. Using TAM, Lee et al. determined that emotions are a major factor as far as responding to a Facebook marketing event is concerned. The importance of Facebook as a marketing tool is undeniable. For instance, every month, approximately 3.5 million events are advertised on the site (Lee et al. 2012). The sheer volume of users makes the site a prime tool for managers keen on wooing attendees, especially in relation to mega-events. However, ensuring that the users respond to the advertisements is a different matter altogether. Lee et al. (2012) found that users who experie nce high levels of arousal and valence from the advertisement are more likely to access Facebook pages than their counterparts. Such users are also more likely to respond to the events marketed there compared to other individuals. Technology advancements give rise to new marketing options. Organisers adopt the most effective of these alternatives. Understanding the factors influencing these options will ultimately determine the success of marketing. Social media marketing is important in reaching out to those users that are technologically savvy. Facebook is one of the most popular platforms used in relation to this form of marketing. To determine the future responsiveness of these users, managers should focus on the perceived value of this social site. The event page should be easy to navigate. Updating the content on such pages will also enhance the success of future events. The Development of Competitive Advantage through Sustainable Event Management (Stephen Henderson) The artic le by Henderson (2011) revolves around the theme of sustainable event management. Henderson (2011) emphasises the need for organisations and event organisers to meet their projected desires. The managers can achieve this through sustainable application of both human and physical resources. Sustainability implies a form of development that meets the present human needs. The development also makes some compromises to help future generations meet their own needs. The definition of sustainable events encompasses several issues. In a broad sense, the definition brings together both the process and the outcome or product of the event. The two aspects imply undertakings organised to meet sustainable standards to enhance the benefits accrued to the audience (Henderson 2011). To this end, a sustainable event should be beneficial to the people and the planet as a whole. In addition, it should meet the interests of the investors. Public and private sector occasions differ in relation to sustai nable management. The former are more concerned with the public welfare. Organisers of such undertakings strive to help the people and to safeguard the environment. On the other hand, management of private sector events mainly focuses on profit generation at the expense of the people and the planet (Henderson 2011). Sustainable coordination of activities may be compromised when competitive advantage is sought. However, cost leadership and focus and differentiation strategies can be used to enhance sustainability without negatively affecting the profitability aspect of these investments. Differentiation and focus approach is people oriented. The event organiser focuses on the delivery of unique utility to the audience. Both approaches enhance profits since the consumers are drawn to the event by the qualities they desire. As such, they are likely to contribute generously to support the process. Conflicts are likely to occur between sustainable management and cost leadership, especial ly with regards to the creation of competitive advantage. It is noted that most of the strategies used in lowering costs disregard the sustainability aspect of the event. For instance, generation of green energy to support the activities associated with Olympics may be costly compared to the use of fossil energy. Such an event addresses the issue of sustainability, but negatively impacts on profitability. To realise sustainability, future event organisers should try to combine the various competitive elements of management. An event geared towards differentiation and focus is more likely to achieve the sustainability target. The same is not guaranteed when a competitiveness strategy is adopted. Sustainability is an important element in contemporary business management. Managers should realise the importance of upholding sustainability in their undertakings. Sustainability-oriented societies will most likely respond to sustainable events, irrespective of the price they are required t o pay to enjoy such undertakings. Relationship Marketing of Services: Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives (Berry 1995) Berry (1995) addresses the theme of relationship marketing of services in the context of events management. The author views the concept as a collection of activities involved in the attraction, maintenance, and enhancement of client relationships. It is noted that most mega-events are products of multiple services organisations. As such, the importance of relationship marketing in this field is irrefutable. The analysis of Contact Theatre relationships and marketing of services by Berry (1995) brings to light some essential aspects of relationship marketing. The interaction between the theatre and the various stakeholders reveals the framework adopted by this organisation in promoting its services. Berry (1995) regards the nature of interactions as a vital element in the success of the theatre. The success is especially determined by the response to the convent ions and other gatherings held. Contact Theatre nurtures relationships with various individuals involved in the running of the business. They include, among others, teachers and youthful workers. The interactions with local, national, and international arts organisations highlight this connection. The link between arts directors and members of staff, for example, indicates internal relationships. According to Berry (1995), marketing differs depending on the nature of relationships exhibited in an organisation. The differences are inevitable since the roles of the individuals or groups in the interaction also differ. For instance, the marketing of internal engagements should focus on attracting and developing qualified employees (Berry 1995). Internal employees and the audience are the most important stakeholders with regards to the activities carried out at Contact Theatre. As such, internal marketing is essential since the services produced involve performance. To this end, the emp loyees are the performers (Berry 1995). Collaboration with the audience is the only means through which the theatre can achieve its objectives. The success of Contact Theatre is measured using the status of the relationships it has with stakeholders and the response of the audience. The more people respond to artistic events, the more the success of the managers. Contact Theatre is a non-profit organisation. In the opinion of this author, management in this entity differs significantly with the coordination of activities in private commercial organisations. The objectives of the latter involve the establishment of relationships geared towards the generation of revenue. On the contrary, Contact Theatre focuses on sustainable relationships with the society and other stakeholders. The internal and external stakeholders regard their relationship with Contact Theatre positively. The former regard this engagement as an open undertaking, leading to high levels of satisfaction and mutual in terest. The external stakeholders view their interaction with the theatre as representative of all groups. References Berry, L 1995, Ã¢â¬ËRelationship marketing of services: growing interest, emerging perspectivesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 23. no. 4, pp. 243-245. Bladen, C 2010, Ã¢â¬ËMedia representation of volunteers at the Beijing Olympic GamesÃ¢â¬â¢, Sport in Society, vol. 13. no. 5, pp. 728-796. Henderson, S 2011, Ã¢â¬ËThe development of competitive advantage through sustainable event managementÃ¢â¬â¢, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3. no. 3, pp. 245-257. Lee, W, Xiong, L Hu, C 2012, Ã¢â¬ËThe effect of Facebook usersÃ¢â¬â¢ arousal and valence on intention to go to the festival: applying an extension of the technology acceptance modelÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 31. no. 1, pp. 819-827. Pearlman, D Gates, N 2010, Ã¢â¬ËHosting business meetings and special events in virtual worlds: a fad or the future?Ã¢â¬â¢, Journal of Convention Event Tourism, vol. 11. no. 1, pp. 247-265. Preuss, H 2007, Ã¢â¬ËThe conceptualisation and measurement of mega sport event legaciesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Sport Tourism, vol. 12. nos. 3-4, pp. 207-227.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Human resources management - Essay Example It would be a mistake to assume that human resources alone can provide a source of competitive advantage, this theory only holds true when the following four conditions are met: Human Resource must add value to the firms production process Skills sought by the firm must be rare, A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s combined human resource investments cannot be imitated A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s human capital should not be replaceable by technology The need for effective Human Resource Management is evident in the case of Uni-Bank, which suffers from a multitude of Personnel related problems. The bankÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel problems can be solved by devising a carefully thought out Human Resource Strategy and implementing effective employee motivation, development and retention techniques. Human Resource Strategy It is of primary importance for firms to develop effective Human Resource Strategies as it will guide the way the firm develops and deploys deploy human, social, and organizational capital to enhance its compe titiveness. The goal of an effective Human Resource Strategy is to develop a workforce which is motivated, trained, adequately rewarded and performs towards pursuing a firm's objectives Past theorists (Snell, Youndt and Wright 1996) noted that in the past executives tried to Ã¢â¬Å"take human resources out of the strategy equation by substituting capital for labor where possible, and by developing organizational structures where there is a dividing line between those who think from those who do the work. As (Quinn ,1992) noted, Ã¢â¬Å"with rareexceptions, the economic and producing power of the firm lies more in its intellectual and service capabilities than in its hard assets; land, plant and equipmentÃ¢â¬ . However, there is no one theory that fits all, every organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s need differs and so does their required strategy. It is quite difficult to achieve a correct balance between motivating and employee, developing and rewarding them, as there is always a fear of employe e turnover. Firms should be careful not to over-invest in their employees, similarly, they should avoid under-investing in their employees as well, as this leads to poor motivational levels and in turn affects performance. UniBank, needs to reassess its human resource strategy, as it seems the current one is not effective. The Company suffers from low employee morale, (which is their primary problem), skill-gap, low employee involvement and performance. The Company seems to be unable to meet its human resource needs with the needs of the changing environment; as a result, it cannot satisfy either. An effective strategy can be devised through 3 key steps: Diagnosis: Conducting a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of the current practice and performance to identify where improvement is required and where policies are working well. In the case of UniBank, the diagnosis stage will identify the following improvement areas: Employee job security Employee Development Employee Motivati on Employee Remuneration Employee Recruitment Employee involvement and decision making ability Aspiration: A vision of effective Human Resource practices, producing outcomes that contribute to achieving the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic objectives. For UniBank, an aspiration outcome will be where its employees are motivated, adequately trained and positively contribute to the change to Online Banking. Developmental: A plan to progress and bring about change in the future. Uni Bank should focus on long term
Monday, February 10, 2020
Multiple intelligence - Essay Example For example, linguistic intelligence is primarily the ability to read, write, and speak effectively, which is of prime importance in career fields such as teaching, journalism and psychology. Similarly, each type of intelligence is the fountainhead of certain specific skills and abilities, which point towards definite career options.The author then goes on to illustrate how the Multiple Intelligence theory can be used in the teaching-learning process and proceeds to highlight the benefits of the use of Multiple Intelligence teaching practices in helping to make students meaningful learners. The Multiple Intelligence theory pre-supposes that each child has his or her own strengths and his or her own way of learning. This makes the Multiple Intelligence theory better suited to individual needs upon implementation. Accordingly, a child with superior kinesthetic intelligence must be taught with more hands-on activities, while a child with better spatial intelligence will learn faster and better with maps, diagrams and other visual inputs. He cites the example of the New City School in St Louis that has applied this theory successfully. The school keeps Multiple Intelligence in mind while developing its curriculum, during classroom instruction and finally at the time of assessment. It has been found that these students average good scores in subsequent standardized tests. The author then gives us a brief glimpse of how he plans to implement the Multiple Intelligence theory in agricultural education. Agricultural education being multifaceted, the possibilities are endless. The author would like to instruct his students through presentations, speech contests, quiz bowls and the like. Lastly, the author discusses the limitations of this theory and also touches briefly on the implementation problems that the theory might pose for educators. Critique The theory of Multiple Intelligence presents interesting possibilities in classroom application. In fact, it "opens up eight different potential pathways to learning" (Armstrong T). It suggests that teachers present their lessons in a wide variety of ways using music, cooperative learning, art activities, field trips, role play, pictures, multimedia etc. This will help teachers to reach out to students who have different types of intelligence to go beyond conventional linguistic and logical methods and choose the learning tool they want. Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligence helps teachers, school administrators and parents' to understand the learners better. However, only the very conscientious of teachers will be able to apply it on a regular basis. A teacher will have to be truly and deeply interested in children to understand how their minds are different from one another's. Anne Guignon, in her article on Multiple Intelligence, refers to Linda Campbell, who has outlined five ways in which the Multiple Intelligence theory can be implemented. These are: - Lesson design. In this the teacher may even focus on his or her own intelligence strengths. Interdisciplinary units. Here two or more units may be combined. Student projects. Students can initiate and execute their own projects depending upon their individual abilities. Assessments. Assessments ca be devised to test Multiple Intelligence. Students can be allowed to devise the way they want to be assessed. Apprenticeships. Apprenticeships will enable students to work with their specific abilities. One cannot discount the use of technology in the classroom, as one of
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes Essay The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes is a collection of twelve short stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and published in 1927, three years before his death. They are the last stories recounting the adventures of the brilliant, enigmatic detective, Sherlock Holmes and his friend Dr, Watson. Extremely popular in Victorian and Edwardian England, these crime mysteries have remained popular throughout successive generations and Sherlock Holmes himself is perhaps the most famous of all fictional detectives. In total, Conan Doyle wrote four novels and fifty- six short stories featuring Sherlock Holmes, beginning in 1887 with his short story, A Study in Scarlet. He went on to write: The Sign of Four, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, The Hound of the Baskervilles, The Return of Sherlock Holmes, The Valley of Fear and His Last Bow. Desperate to concentrate on more serious work, Conan Doyle had attempted to kill off Holmes in The Final Problem, but had revived him in 1904 with The Return of Sherlock Holmes and again in The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes, so great was the Victorian publics desire to read more stories about Holmes with his cold, scientific approach to crime solving. The setting is Victorian England, primarily Victorian London and Holmess address of 221B Baker Street. The dialogue is formal, as Holmes mixes with the upper strata of society. The descriptions are vivid and detailed, often using metaphor or simile: A red-veined nose jutted out like a vultures head and two fierce grey eyes glared at me from under tufted brows (The Blanched Soldier) The first story is that of The Illustrious Client. Baron Adelbert Gruner was a cunning devil, who was planning to marry Violet De Merville, daughter of General De Merville. The illustrious client asks for Holmes to help prevent the marriage taking place. In his attempt to do so, he suffers a monstrous attack by Gruner. But, in the end, the handsome Gruner is horrendously disfigured and the truth of his wickedness disclosed. Watsons account of the attack is particularly harrowing: The vitriol was eating into it everywhere and dripping from the ears and chin The features, which I had admired a few minutes before were now like some beautiful painting over which the artist had passed a wet foul sponge. The passage vividly and grotesquely describes the transformation from beauty to monster. Gruner becomes physically the monster he is mentally. In The Blanched Soldier, James Dodd employs Holmes to find the whereabouts of his friend and former comrade, Godfrey Emsworth, with whom he had served in the Boer War. It is Holmes, and not Watson who, for once, tells the story of how by analysis and deduction, he locates the soldier: That process, said I [Holmes] starts upon the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then what remains, however improbable, must be the truth Hence, the ghostly face at the window is actually the real Emsworth, protected by his parents, because of his suspected leprosy, which fortunately turns out to be only pseudo-leprosy or ichtbyosis. It is suggested that fear alone may have produced the white blotches his mental state had altered his physical state. It is the above process that defines Sherlock Holmess method of detection by deduction and is the forerunner of todays forensic science. The method of deduction stems directly from Doyles own experiences as a student under surgeon who employed similar techniques for diagnosis. So, Sherlock Holmes is the main protagonist in this, at times disturbing, selection of stories. He is the clear- headed, analytical detective; interested only in the cold facts of the case, however minor they seem. Hence, he wanted to know what newspaper was being read by the little man in the house in the grounds of Tetbury Old Park. He is always remarkably observant and objective. Watson, his friend, is very different and a more sympathetic character. But all the characters are believable, colourful and interesting within the settings of the stories. Unfortunately, the stories were difficult to actually become interested in, due to the slow start, which did not inspire me to continue reading. Initially I found the formal style of writing and the language somewhat difficult. Also, some are rather too grisly, but this obviously appealed to the Victorian mentality willing to be thrilled by the very worst crimes and intrigues. Undoubtedly, they are great crime mysteries and I did enjoy them.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Peter Paul Rubens was the painter of the first part of the 17th Century in Catholic Europe. How he became so is an interesting story. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rubens was educated to be a humanist but like all great artists choose his profession for himself. The combination of first-rate classical education with an innate visual genius made for an unprecedented combination in an artist. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It has been said that no artist has ever been as well educated as Rubens. After training with three minor artists in Antwerp. Rubens set off for Italy to complete his education; a position at the court of the Duke of Mantua was quickly accepted and he stayed in Italy for eight years. His job was to travel to all the major artistic collections, especially Rome and Venice painting copies of famous works of art, especially paintings of beautiful women, for the Duke's collection. He was also sent to Spain where he had an opportunity to study the enormous collection of Titian masterworks in the Royal Collection in Madrid. Copying the masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance especially and the recently unearthed sculptures of classical antiquity, Rubens sketched and painted and encompassed all that was best in Italian and Classical art. Rubens combined the lessons of Antique Sculpture with the vaunting ambition of the High Renaissance giants in an unprecedented way. He used the plastic less ons of sculpture as a composition model but insisted that flesh should look like flesh in a painting thus developing his breakthrough approach to the naked body. In this he never forgot the earthy luminous realism of the old Netherlandish tradition of the 15th and 16th century (Van Eyck, Van Weyden, Breughel). You won't appreciate Rubens the master of the female nude until you consider that he was the greatest influence on French painting from the 18th to the 20th century: Watteau, Fragonard, Delacroix, and Renoir were his among his loyal followers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rubens was to develop a phenomenal ability to analyze the different styles of painting and sculpture and then synthesis them into whatever his clients wanted. His clients included just about every Catholic monarch, as well as Catholic leaning Protestants like King Charles I of England, and every major religious order in Western Europe. Not to mention every wealthy connoisseur of painting. To satisfy an ever growing demand Rubens opened the largest art workshop Europe has ever seen: he would paint an small initial oil sketch which when approved and contracted for would be given over to one or more of his students to paint the full length canvas, finally Rubens would add the finishing touches and sign it.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Analysis of the last scene in the play Ã¢â¬Å"The History BoysÃ¢â¬ Introduction Critical analysis of the last scene in the play Ã¢â¬Å"The History BoysÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This extract captures the end of the play so well. The opening statement gives the impression that the play is coming to an end. Irwin is presented in his wheelchair. This is a reminder that the audience should not forget that Irwin had been involved in an accident. It is during the accident that he broke his legs. Presently, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t walk. He can only use a wheelchair to move around. In the opening statement, we are told that photographs of Hector as a young man were being displayed on the screen. Again, this is used to emphasize the fact that he is not alive at present. The audience is made to recall what sort of a person Hector was when several photographs of him as a young man are flashed on the screen. The demise of Hector is symbolically emphasized also by the song that the boys are singing: Ã¢â¬ËBye Bye BlackbirdÃ¢â¬â¢. When they sing this song, it brings out a sad mood. The effects of the song cause melancholy to grip th e audience as they are made to feel the deep absence of Hector. By extension, the song also helps bring the message of sympathy towards Irwin, who is in wheelchair. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the play in this extract begins, the Headmaster speaks about Hector. He praises him as a person who loved language and a person who molded his students to understand literature and language. But the tone that he uses captures his emotions has he remembers Hector. He seems to be in great pain and sadness because of HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s death. This is a good way of ending a play. It is worth showing the audience that the dead character had a significant contribution in the development of the story. In addition, flashing back connects the audience to the story in a solid manner. That is to say that the audience feels a part of everything that is happening in the play. In this case, when the Headmaster mentions HectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ past and how good he was, the audience feels the sadness that surrounds the fact that he died. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Furthermore, the mood of sadness brought to the surface by the Headmaster is propagated by some of the students. However, these students recall Hector by the way he did his things and the way he talked. For instance, Timmssays that he never understood some of the things that Hector said. Lockwood himself thought that Hector was an extraordinary teacher. He jokingly says that he realized that Hector was a human being when he heard him complain of being a teacher in that school. He had referred it as a Ã¢â¬Ëgodforsaken schoolÃ¢â¬â¢. What Lockwood meant is that Hector loved to teach language and literature. He, therefore, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect to hear him complain at all. However, this attitude of Lockwood paints a better picture of Hector to the audience with regard to how his students viewed his teaching. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The past about Hector had its pitfalls. He messed severally and did some things that his students cannot forget. Crowther says that he had done many Ã¢â¬Ëunforgivable thingsÃ¢â¬â¢. Perhaps this utterance refers to the time that Hector had been found fondling with a boy. This brought him out as a homosexual. According to Crowther, this act was abnormal and thus refers to it as unforgivable. It is important to mention that the tone with which Crowther utters this statement reveals distaste. He appears to have developed a negative attitude on Hector perhaps on the grounds of his sexual orientation. He appears to feel less remorse for the fact that Hector is dead. He casually says, Ã¢â¬Å"Even his death was a lesson and added to the storeÃ¢â¬ . This emphasizes the fact that he felt no sympathy upon HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s death. For purposes of ending this play, it becomes important to know how some students felt about Hector. And the feelings o f Crowther towards Hector cannot be ignored. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Furthermore, the Mrs Lintott, the History teacher, has her comments about Hector. She says that Hector never bothered with what he taught. In other words, MrsLintott means that Hector cared less about what he taught. The tone in her voice betrays her attitude towards Hector. She seems to have been bothered by the way Hector had been teaching. However, she remarks that his students ended up taking different careers in life. She simply and casually says that some became solicitors, others chartered accountants, others teachers among others. The students take different paths in life because Hector had been influenced them think beyond just passing exams. It can be said that he had a great impact on the lives of his students. This recounting of the lives of the students is a good marker to show that the play is coming to an end. It is important for the audience to know the lives of the characters as influenced by Hector, who appears to be the center of this passage. His contribution is being recalled. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Besides Mrs Lintott, students also take part in telling the audience what each of them becomes at the end of the play. For instance, Timms says that one of the students became a tax lawyer. He supports the claims that Mrs Lintott is making that HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s students succeeded in their lives. Dakin owns up to TimmsÃ¢â¬â¢ claim to mean that he is the one being referred to as the tax lawyer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the discussion proceeds, Mrs Lintott humorously says that Hector had referred Irwin as a journalist instead of a history teacher. This is because of the view that Hector had on the way Irwin taught his History lessons. He did not teach history as was supposed to be taught. Instead, he taught students how to critically analyze the past. It is a claim that Irwin himself admits with a sense of humor. This is a way of further remembering what kind of person Hector was. He had a very different approach in teaching from that of Irwin. This is a nice way of bringing the story to an end because the audience feels that Hector had a significant position in the lives of those who lived with him. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another positive impact of Hector in the lives of his students is illustrated by the mention of one of his students, Posner. Mrs Lintott humorously says that Posner remembers everything that he was taught by Hector in terms of language and literature. She supposedly says that Posner remembers the exact words of Hector. We find that this last part of the play is filled with what can be referred to as sweet memories of Hector. In the case of the Posner, there is a replica of Hector. Posner likes literature in the same manner that Hector did. He is ever present in the local library reading. This illustration is also contributing to a good ending of the story. It helps to further paint the picture of Hector. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Finally, HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s voice is used to utter the last words before the play ends. He is given this privilege to conclude what others have been implying about him. From the discussion held up by Mrs Lintott and others, we have realized that Hector was an exceptional person. To other teachers, Hector had a different approach to teaching. The students also felt the same. They felt that he made them understand what they were learning from a cramming point of view. However, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t make bad comments on him. Instead, they praise him. He has had contributions in the success of his students. They passed their final exams and are all successful people in life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This passage explicitly talks about Hector, the English teacher who is not alive at the moment. We gather that he had died earlier on in an accident. Being a passage that is ending the play, it effectively captures the attitudes of the rest of the characters about Hector. The language used portrays a mix of moods; sadness and happiness. It is sad when everyone remembers the contributions that Hector had in the teaching fraternity and he is now dead. It portrays happiness when his sense of humor is recalled. In a nutshell, this passage is effective in the way it ends the play. The audience is left contemplating about Hector. It is nostalgic when his voice is given an opportunity to utter the last words before the end of the play. References Bennett,Ã A. (2004). The history boys. New York: Faber and Faber. Source document
Monday, January 6, 2020
Introduction Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËCompetency-based strategic management is a relatively new way of thinking about how organizations gain high performance for a significant period of time. Established as a theory in the early 1990s, competence-based strategic management theory explains how organizations can develop sustainable competitive advantage in a systematic and structural way. The theory of competence-based strategic management is an integrative strategy theory that incorporates economic, organizational and behavioural concerns in a framework that is dynamic, systemic, cognitive and holistic (Sanchez and Heene, 2004). This theory defines competence as: the ability to sustain the coordinated deployment of resources in ways that helps an organizationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦An alternative would be to set a reminder that will alert one on what to do at a specific time. Teamwork Competency Accomplishing tasks through small groups of people who are collectively responsible and whose work is interdependent requires teamwork competency (Hellriegel Jackson, Slocum Amos Klopper, Louw Oosthuizen, 2007, Page 15). A united nation is a winning nation; teamwork is about working together to achieve a certain goal. Communities work together for example to fight the socio-economic problem which is crime, in turn making it a safer environment. In the same sense businesses work as a team to improve efficiency in the working environment. When it comes to designing a team, team-building strategies work best, as the strategy brings employees together creating a close relationship amongst them and making them work as a more united team. Relating teamwork competency to the author, a negative result will be the outcomes, as the author believes that working alone is more effective, but people have different opinions on the subject. 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